1949 Armistice Agreement Map

The Jordanian-Israeli Agreement stated: «Nothing in this Agreement shall affect in any way the rights, claims and positions of any of the parties to the peaceful settlement of the questions of Palestine, the provisions of this Agreement being dictated exclusively by military considerations» (art. II.2. «The ceasefire demarcation lines defined in Articles V and VI of this Agreement shall be agreed by the Parties, without prejudice to future territorial settlements or related borders or claims of a Party.»; (Art. VI.9)[3] The four agreements also provided for a monitoring and dispute settlement mechanism. The United Nations operated a ceasefire monitoring organization (UNTSO) that was occupied by a corps of officers from different countries, headquartered in a corner of no man`s land in Jerusalem, and had the power to investigate complaints of GAA violations. Such complaints have also been resolved by joint ceasefire commissions chaired by a senior United Nations officer. Complaints of serious violations were forwarded by the parties to the UN Security Council, which based its deliberations on the reports of the UNOS Chief of Staff. From the beginning, arab-Israeli GAAs have been afflicted by discord and differences of opinion. A fundamental disagreement was the degree of responsibility of States parties for the criminal and often violent activities of persons in an irregular situation that exceeded the boundaries of demarcation. The scale of such infiltration in the early 1950s worried Israelis, and the inability of UNTSO and several Arab states to contain it effectively prompted serious retaliation from the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), which itself violated the TSA. Perhaps the most serious disagreement was the nature of the agreements signed. While Israel regarded them as a permanent demarcation line as finished borders and was only waiting for the final stage of the signing of comprehensive peace treaties, the Arab States interpreted them only as long-term ceasefire agreements that did not end their belligerent status and did not give permanence to their various provisions.

Israel-Lebanon GAA was signed on March 23, 1949 by Lieutenant Colonel Mordechai Makleff for Israel and Lieutenant Colonel Tawfiq Salim for Lebanon in Raʾs Naqura. Israeli troops, who had withdrawn from parts of southern Lebanon they had occupied in the summer of 1948, agreed to define the ceasefire demarcation lines along the former international borders, thus creating more stability in Israeli-Lebanese relations for more than two decades. After the «black September» of 1970, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the various Palestinian guerrilla groups moved the site of their operations from Jordan to the refugee camps in Lebanon, making the Israeli-Lebanese border a recurring battlefield. Israel attacked and briefly occupied southern Lebanon in March 1978 and again in June 1982. After the 1982 invasion, Israel failed to push Lebanon to reach a peace agreement and the border region remained exacerbated instability for nearly two decades; The presence of a United Nations Special Force (UNIFIL) has not changed much. The final withdrawal of Israeli forces from southern Lebanon in 2000 marked the return of relative calm to that area. In the absence of another binding agreement, the 1949 Israel-Lebanon GAA remains the only legal instrument governing relations between the two countries. The agreement with Lebanon was signed on March 23, 1949. [2] The main points were: Shalev, Aryeh. The Israeli-Syrian ceasefire regime, 1949-1955. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993. The first GAA was signed on February 24, 1949 by Colonel Mohammad Ibrahim Sayf el-Din for Egypt and Walter Eytan for Israel on the Greek island of Rhodes.

It provided, among other things, for large demilitarized zones in the Nitzana-AbuAgayla sector. On the other hand, the rights of Israeli navigation through the Suez Canal and the Strait of Tiran have not been specified….

Sin categoría