Tax Treaties Trade Agreements
A tax treaty is a bilateral (two-party) treaty concluded by two countries to resolve the problems related to the double taxation of the passive and active income of each of their respective citizens. Income tax treaties generally determine the amount of taxes a country can apply to a taxable person`s income, capital, estate or wealth. An income tax treaty is also called a double taxation convention (DBA). Describes the bilateral and multilateral trade agreements in which this country participates, including with the United States. Contains websites and other resources for U.S. companies to get more information on how to use these agreements. For people residing in the United States, it is important to keep in mind that some states in the United States do not comply with the provisions of tax treaties. What is the relationship between the international tax system, as enshrined in bilateral international tax treaties, and multilateral free trade agreements such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATr)? Are their fundamental objectives coherent or inconsistent? If they are inconsistent, should tax treaties or GATT be amended to address the inconsistency? If they are consistent, should the scope be extended from one to the other? Treaties are considered the supreme right of many countries. In these countries, the provisions of the Treaty take precedence over conflicting national legislation. For example, many EU countries have failed to implement their group expense reduction programmes within the framework of European directives. In some countries, treaties are considered equivalent to national law.  In these countries, a conflict between national law and the treaty must be resolved within the framework of the dispute settlement mechanisms of national law or the treaty.  The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is a group of 36 countries committed to promoting world trade and economic progress.
The OECD Tax Convention on Income and Capital is more favourable to capital-exporting countries than to capital-importing countries. It requires the country of origin to waive some or all of the tax on certain categories of income of residents of the other contracting country. The two countries concerned will benefit from such an agreement if the flow of trade and investment between the two countries is reasonably equal and if the country of residence taxes all exempt income of the country of origin. Income tax agreements typically contain a clause called a «savings clause» that is intended to prevent U.S. residents from using certain parts of the tax treaty to avoid taxation of a domestic source of income. Most agreements eliminate the tax revenues of some diplomats. Most tax treaties also provide that certain tax-exempt businesses in one country are also exempt in the other. Generally exempt bodies include charities, pension funds and public bodies. Many agreements provide for other tax exemptions that one or both countries consider relevant to their governmental or economic system.
 As a general rule, income tax and inheritance tax are dealt with in separate contracts.  Inheritance tax agreements often cover inheritance tax and gift tax. As a general rule, tax residence is defined in such contracts by reference to domicile and not to tax domicile. Such agreements define the persons and immovable property that are taxed by each country upon the transfer of ownership by inheritance or gift. . . .